Studies & Facts

Monday, December 14, 2009

Provincial government spending on the arts and culture

Prepared for the Saskatchewan Arts Alliance by Hill Strategies Research, May 19, 2006

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Most calculations are based on Statistics Canada 2003/04 data on Government Expenditures on Culture, available at www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/87F0001XIE/87F0001XIE2006001.htm.

To calculate per-capita figures, population figures for July 1, 2003 were used. The Saskatchewan population was 994,500. The population figures are available from Statistics Canada at www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/demo02.htm?sdi=population
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Section 1: Total provincial government spending on culture

This section examines total provincial government spending on the arts and culture, including all culture sectors (arts + cultural industries + libraries + heritage + other) and all spending categories (operating expenses, capital expenses, operating grants and capital grants), based on Statistics Canada 2003/04 data on Government Expenditures on Culture. All relevant provincial government departments and agencies were surveyed by Statistics Canada.

According to Statistics’ Canada’s definitions, tax credits may not be included. The definitions state that "Excluded are expenditures not requiring a cash outlay". Centennial funding could theoretically be included, but the figures relate to the 2003/04 fiscal year, not 2005.


Overall Saskatchewan provincial spending on culture was $87.7 million in 2003/04. This figure includes all culture sectors (arts + cultural industries + libraries + heritage + other).

Saskatchewan’s per capita spending level ($88) ranks 3rd among the provinces, behind Quebec ($97) and Manitoba ($96).


 

Section 2: Provincial government spending by cultural sector

Overall funding for arts and cultural industries is relatively high

In Saskatchewan, total provincial spending on the arts and cultural industries was $24.8 million in 2003/04.

The "arts" include arts education, performing arts and visual arts and crafts. The "cultural industries" include literary arts/publishing, film and video, broadcasting and sound recording.

On a per capita basis, Saskatchewan provincial funding of the arts and cultural industries – $25 per person – is 2nd among the 10 provinces. Only Quebec has higher provincial per capita funding of the arts and cultural industries – $40.

Low arts spending, high cultural industries spending

When spending on the cultural industries is separated from arts spending, the statistics show that arts spending is much lower than cultural industries spending.

Saskatchewan provincial spending on the arts was $5.7 million in 2003/04, compared with $19.2 million in provincial spending on the cultural industries.

On a per capita basis, only $6 per person in Saskatchewan goes towards the arts (defined as arts education + performing arts + visual arts and crafts).

The $6 in provincial per capita arts spending in Saskatchewan ranks 7th among the 10 provinces, ahead of only PEI ($5), Ontario ($5) and B.C. ($4).

The top provinces are Quebec ($21 per capita) and Alberta ($12). Manitoba arts spending is $8 per capita, ranking 5th among the provinces. The average of all 10 provinces is $10 per capita.

In order to bring Saskatchewan’s provincial arts funding level up to the average of all 10 provinces ($10 per capita), an additional $3.8 million investment in the arts would be required (a 67% increase from the current $5.7 million).

The cultural industries (literary arts/publishing + film and video + broadcasting + sound recording) account for 77% of Saskatchewan provincial arts and cultural industries funding: $19 of the $25 per person.

The $19 in provincial per capita spending on cultural industries is the 2nd highest level in Canada, second only to Quebec ($20).

Among the cultural industries "line items", the largest share of funding goes to film and video: $11 per capita, the highest provincial per capita spending for this line item.

Other definitions of "arts" spending

Definitions of the "arts" that include the cultural industries – specifically film and video – will place Saskatchewan near the top of provincial per capita spending comparisons.

However, other possible definitions of "arts spending" have Saskatchewan lowly ranked.

a) If the "literary arts" are included in arts spending, the Saskatchewan per capita figure is still relatively low – $7. This ranks 6th among the provinces.

In this definition, the "arts" include arts education + performing arts + visual arts and crafts + literary arts/publishing.

b) If all "museum" spending is included in the arts, the Saskatchewan per capita figure is still low – $12 – ranking 9th among the provinces, ahead of only B.C. ($9).

In this definition, the "arts" include arts education + performing arts + visual arts and crafts + museums. (Note: Literary arts/publishing was taken back out for this definition.)

In Statistics Canada tables, museums are included in the heritage sector.

According to the Statistics Canada definition, museums include "general museums, history museums, natural science museums, science and technology museums, art museums and galleries (excluding art galleries primarily concerned with temporary exhibits), etc."

Unfortunately, there is no easy way to separate "art museums and galleries" from this category. A custom request would have to be made to Statistics Canada to separate this item from the rest of the museums.

c) If both the "literary arts" and all "museum" spending are included in the arts, the Saskatchewan per capita figure remains low – $14 – ranking 9th among the provinces, ahead of only B.C. ($10).

In this definition, the "arts" include arts education + performing arts + visual arts and crafts + literary arts/publishing + museums.
 

Section 3: Provincial government spending
on cultural line items

The question in this section is: For which cultural line items does Saskatchewan have particularly low or high provincial funding?

Cautionary note: The interpretation of individual line item data is subject to more possible errors than broader analyses because of the greater likelihood of respondents not fully understanding the line-item definitions or simply responding incorrectly.

Line items with below-average provincial per capita spending


Provincial spending on the performing arts is low in Saskatchewan compared with other provinces: $3.12 in Saskatchewan vs. an average of $5.67 for all 10 provinces.

Reported provincial spending on arts education is low in Saskatchewan compared with other provinces: $0.36 in Saskatchewan vs. an average of $2.37 for all 10 provinces.

Note: The Statistics Canada definition of arts education is very particular and excludes most spending in formal educational settings. "Included are expenditures associated with the teaching of the arts both at national schools (such as the National Ballet School in Toronto and the National Theatre School in Montreal) and at arts institutions (such as Holland College of Visual Arts, Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Ontario College of Art, Kootenay School of Art, Emily Carr College of Art and Design, Mennonite Brethren Bible/Art College and conservatories of music and dramatic arts). Excluded are expenditures associated with the teaching of the arts at educational institutions (elementary and secondary schools, and college and university institutions)."

Provincial spending on libraries is relatively low in Saskatchewan compared with other provinces: $23 in Saskatchewan vs. an average of $27 for all 10 provinces.

Line items with above-average provincial per capita spending

As noted above, film and video receives $11 per capita, the highest provincial per capita spending for this line item.

Overall heritage spending is high in Saskatchewan ($34 per capita compared with a $17 average for all provinces). This is largely due to particularly high reported spending on nature/provincial parks ($21 per capita compared to only $2 on average for all provinces).
 

Section 4: Provincial government grants, transfers and contributions to the arts and culture

This section examines provincial government grants to organizations and individuals in the arts and culture, including the operating and capital grants of provincial government departments and agencies.

The figures for all culture sectors (arts + cultural industries + libraries + heritage + other) are followed by a breakdown by cultural sector.


Overall Saskatchewan provincial cultural grants were $49.3 million in 2003/04. This figure includes all culture sectors (arts + cultural industries + libraries + heritage + other).

Saskatchewan’s per capita granting level ($50) ranks 4th among the provinces, behind Quebec ($62), Manitoba ($57) and British Columbia ($54).

Grants by sector

Arts and cultural industry grants

Saskatchewan provincial spending on the arts and cultural industries $17.9 million in 2003/04.

On a per capita basis, Saskatchewan provincial government grants to the arts and cultural industries – $18 per person – rank 2nd among the 10 provinces.

Only Quebec has higher per capita provincial government grants to the arts and cultural industries – $25.


Arts grants, high cultural industries grants

In Saskatchewan, provincial arts grants were $5.4 million in 2003/04.

On a per capita basis, provincial government grants to the arts were $5.43 ("arts" = arts education + performing arts + visual arts and crafts).

The $5.43 per capita in provincial arts granting in Saskatchewan ranks 5th among the 10 provinces, behind Quebec ($14.27 per capita), Alberta ($10.08), Nova Scotia ($8.54) and Manitoba ($7.52).

The provinces that trail Saskatchewan in terms of per capita arts grants are PEI ($4.98), Ontario ($4.60), B.C. ($4.18), New Brunswick ($2.55) and Newfoundland and Labrador ($1.24).

The average of all 10 provinces is $7.54 per capita, or $2.11 higher than the Saskatchewan figure. In order to bring Saskatchewan’s provincial arts grants up to the average of all 10 provinces, an additional $2.1 million in arts grants would be required.

Saskatchewan provincial grants to the cultural industries (literary arts/publishing + film and video + broadcasting + sound recording) are more than double the value of arts grants. Provincial cultural industries grants were $12.5 million in 2003/04, compared with $5.4 million in arts grants.

On a per capita basis, provincial government grants to the cultural industries were $12.53, the highest level in Canada.

Among the cultural industries line items, the largest share of grants goes to film and video: $11 per capita, the highest provincial per capita granting for this line item.

Other definitions of "arts" grants

As was the case with the overall spending figures, definitions of the "arts" that include the cultural industries – specifically film and video – will place Saskatchewan near the top of provincial per capita granting comparisons.

However, definitions of "arts granting" that exclude film and video have Saskatchewan more lowly ranked than "arts and cultural industries" granting, but still among the top 5 provinces.

a) If the "literary arts" are included in arts granting, the Saskatchewan per capita granting figure – $6.67 – ranks 5th among the provinces.

In this definition, the "arts" include arts education + performing arts + visual arts and crafts + literary arts/publishing.

b) If all "museum" granting is included in the arts, the Saskatchewan per capita granting figure – $10.29 – ranks 4th among the provinces.

In this definition, the "arts" include arts education + performing arts + visual arts and crafts + museums. (Note: Literary arts/publishing was taken back out for this definition.)

c) If both the "literary arts" and all "museum" granting are included in the arts, the Saskatchewan per capita granting figure – $11.53 – ranks 3rd among the provinces.

In this definition, the "arts" include arts education + performing arts + visual arts and crafts + literary arts/publishing + museums.
 

Section 5: Breakdown of provincial government operating and capital grants, transfers and contributions to the arts and culture

This section provides a breakdown of provincial government grants into operating and capital categories.

Operating grants


Overall Saskatchewan provincial operating grants to the arts and culture were $49.1 million in 2003/04. This figure includes all culture sectors (arts + cultural industries + libraries + heritage + other).

Saskatchewan’s per capita operating grant level ($49) ranks 3rd among the provinces, behind Manitoba ($55) and British Columbia ($54).

Capital grants

Overall Saskatchewan provincial capital grants to the arts and culture totaled only $200,000 in 2003/04. Capital grants were reported for museums only.

These capital grants amount to only 20 cents per Saskatchewan resident. On a per capita basis, Saskatchewan’s capital grant level ranks 7th among the provinces.

Quebec ranks most highly in terms of total capital grants and capital grants per capita ($120 million in capital grants, or $16.05 per capita).


Operating grants by sector

Because the only capital grants in Saskatchewan were $200,000 for museums, a per capita analysis of operating grants will return basically the same figures as the analysis of overall grants.

Saskatchewan ranks 5th in terms of operating grants to the arts, 1st in terms of operating grants to the cultural industries, and 2nd in terms of operating grants to the combined category of arts and cultural industries.

 

Section 6: Arts board / arts council spending by province

This section examines granting by provincial arts boards and arts councils in each province, based on data published in annual reports. These figures were collected by Michael Choo, Research Analyst, Ontario Arts Council and are used with the permission of Pat Bradley, Research Manager, Ontario Arts Council. Further notes are provided at the end of this section and in the detailed tables (Section 7).

Overall Saskatchewan Arts Board granting was $3.6 million in 2003/04 and $4.2 million in 2004/05.

On a per capita basis, this amounted to $3.65 per Saskatchewan resident in 2003/04 and $4.21 in 2004/05.

In both years, Saskatchewan ranked 5th among the 10 provinces in terms of arts board or arts council funding per capita.

In 2003/04, the top provinces were Quebec ($8.91), Manitoba ($6.35), Alberta ($5.97) and Nova Scotia ($5.34).

In 2003/04, the provinces below Saskatchewan in terms of per capita arts council funding were New Brunswick ($3.41), British Columbia ($2.63), Ontario ($2.39), Newfoundland and Labrador ($1.00) and Prince Edward Island ($0.87).

In 2004/05, Alberta and Nova Scotia traded places in the ranking but remained ahead of Saskatchewan. Similarly, Ontario and British Columbia traded places in the ranking but remained below Saskatchewan.

The Saskatchewan levels were below the average for all 10 provinces in both years ($4.60 average in 2003/04 and $4.71 in 2004/05).

In order to bring the Saskatchewan Arts Board levels up to the average for all 10 provinces, an additional $946,000 would have been required in 2003/04 (and $496,000 in 2004/05).

Notes to Section 6
-The granting amounts include arts councils, arts boards and, in some cases, provincial departments that fund the arts. In some provinces (PEI and New Brunswick), the arts council funds individual artists only and a government department funds organizations.
-In general, lottery-based arts funders are excluded from this analysis. However, the analysis includes the funding from the Alberta Foundation for the Arts, which is funded from lottery revenues.
-Per capita figures were calculated using the population as of July 1 in the first year (e.g., July 1, 2003 for 2003/04).


 

Section 7: Detailed tables

Tables providing fuller details of the analysis in Sections 1 through 6 are available by emailing the Saskatchewan Arts Alliance.

 

Section 8: Definitions

As per our 2005 report for the Canadian Conference of the Arts, Hill Strategies’ preferred cultural sector definitions are:

a) arts (arts education + performing arts + visual arts and crafts)
b) cultural industries (literary arts/publishing + film and video + broadcasting + sound recording)
c) heritage (museums + public archives + historic parks and sites + nature/provincial parks + other heritage)
d) libraries
e) other (multiculturalism + multidisciplinary + other)

Provincial government spending on culture includes:
a) direct operating expenditures - e.g., salaries, benefits, and purchases of goods and services
plus b) direct capital expenditures
plus c) operating grants, contributions and transfers to other organizations (including funding of arts and culture organizations)
plus d) capital grants, contributions and transfers to other organizations

Operating grants, contributions and transfers include financial assistance that is not for capital development or acquisition.

Capital grants, contributions and transfers included grants and transfers made to finance the acquisition of capital assets.

Total grants, contributions and transfers include operating plus capital grants, contributions and transfers.


For full definitions of the arts line items and the spending categories used by Statistics Canada, please see www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/87F0001XIE/2006001/method.htm#8